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O apocalipse nuclear e outros mitos sobre a Coreia do Norte

Mundo

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As constantes ameaças nucleares aliadas à imagem de secretismo que o regime norte-coreano cultiva ajudam a criar uma série de mitos sobre o país - e a passar despercebidas outras tantas verdades. SAIBA QUAIS

2012 World Press Photo of the year by Samuel Aranda, Spain, for The New York Times
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2012 World Press Photo of the year by Samuel Aranda, Spain, for The New York Times

2nd prize Arts and Entertainment Singles category by Vincent Boisot, France, Riva Press for Le Figaro Magazine
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2nd prize Arts and Entertainment Singles category by Vincent Boisot, France, Riva Press for Le Figaro Magazine

1st prize Arts and Entertainment Stories category by Rob Hornstra, The Netherlands shows the Sochi Project
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1st prize Arts and Entertainment Stories category by Rob Hornstra, The Netherlands shows the Sochi Project

1st prize Contemporary Issues Singles category by Brent Stirton, South Africa, Reportage by Getty Images for Kiev Independent
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1st prize Contemporary Issues Singles category by Brent Stirton, South Africa, Reportage by Getty Images for Kiev Independent

1st prize Daily Life Singles category by Damir Sagolj, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Reuters
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1st prize Daily Life Singles category by Damir Sagolj, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Reuters

1st prize Daily Life Stories by Alejandro Kirchuk, Argentina "Never Let You Go"
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1st prize Daily Life Stories by Alejandro Kirchuk, Argentina "Never Let You Go"

1st prize Nature Singles category by Jenny E. Ross, USA. Novaya Zemlya
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1st prize Nature Singles category by Jenny E. Ross, USA. Novaya Zemlya

1st prize Nature Stories category by Brent Stirton, South Africa, Reportage by Getty Images for National Geographic
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1st prize Nature Stories category by Brent Stirton, South Africa, Reportage by Getty Images for National Geographic

1st prize General News Singles category by Alex Majoli, Italy, Magnum Photos for Newsweek
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1st prize General News Singles category by Alex Majoli, Italy, Magnum Photos for Newsweek

2nd prize People in the News Singles category by Tomasz Lazar, Poland shows the arrest of protesters in Harlem, New York City
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2nd prize People in the News Singles category by Tomasz Lazar, Poland shows the arrest of protesters in Harlem, New York City

2nd prize General News Stories category by Paolo Pellegrin, Italy, Magnum Photos for Zeit Magazin
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2nd prize General News Stories category by Paolo Pellegrin, Italy, Magnum Photos for Zeit Magazin

1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse
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1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse

1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse
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1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse

1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse
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1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse

1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse
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1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse

1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse
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1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse

1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse
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1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse

1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse
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1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse

1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse
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1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse

1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse
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1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse

1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse
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1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse

1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse
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1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse

1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse
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1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse

1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse
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1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse

1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse
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1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse

1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse
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1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse

1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse
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1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse

1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse
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1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse

1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse
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1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse

1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse
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1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse

1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse
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1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse

1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse
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1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse

1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse
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1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse

1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse
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1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse

1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse
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1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse

1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse
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1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse

1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse
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1st prize People in the News Stories category by Yasuyoshi Chiba, Japan, Agence France-Presse

O jornal espanhol El Mundo desconstruiu alguns mitos e verdades sobre o regime de  Pyongyang.  

Alguns mitos...

O apocalipse nuclear:

As ameaças de um ataque nuclear sobre os Estados Unidos são quase diárias e até já tiveram direito a ser ilustradas com vídeos em que se vêem cidades norte-americanas devastadas e em chamas, em montagens de qualidade duvidosa. O problema? A Coreia do Norte pode ter o desejo mas não tem a tecnologia para levar a cabo um ataque dessa dimensão. O seu míssil mais potente terá um alcance máximo de 6 mil quilómetros, ou seja, capacidade para chegar, na melhor das hipóteses (do ponto de vista norte-coreano), ao Alasca. Por outro lado, utilizar bombas atómicas contra a vizinha Coreia do Sul seria um "tiro no pé", uma vez que Pyongyang e Seul estão separadas por menos de 200 quilómetros.

A irracionalidade dos seus líderes:

É generalizada a imagem de um líder louco com o dedo no botão nuclear. Mas as decisões tomadas pelo falecido Kim Jong-il e pelo seu sucessor, o seu filho Kim Jong-un, mostram uma estratégia racional, que lhes tem garantido apoio estrangeiro e uma posição de força na hora de negociar. De realçar também a "arte da tensão", parafraseando o El Mundo, na península, aumentando-a e abrandando-o consoante os interesses do momento.

O bastião comunista:

O regime norte-coreano mantém uma legião de fãs no Ocidente, convictos de que o país é o último a viver um comunismo "puro". Mas a verdade é que a Coreia do Norte é controlada por uma elite que vive rodeada dos luxos que proibe aos seus cidadãos. A ideologia marxista torna-se secundária num sistema que combina uma dinastia com ultranacionalismo e tiques fascistas, como os conceitos da alegada pureza e superioridade da raça coreana. 

... e verdades

A guerra:

Uma coisa é a ameaça nuclear de dimensões globais, que não passará disso mesmo: uma ameaça. Outra é a capacidade de entrar num conflito de consequências imprevisíveis e isso Pyongyang tem. Os mísseis norte-coreanos podem alcançar Tóquio e Seul numa questão de minutos, o que levaria a uma intervenção dos Estados Unidos. A China, grande aliada da Coreia do Norte, ver-se-ia, nesse caso, obrigada a defender Pyongyang, à semelhança do que aconteceu na Guerra da Coreia (1950-1953).

O país mais hermético:

Apesar das ligeiras alterações dos últimos anos (a tímida abertura ecnomómica, os telemóveis ou a oferta cultural), a Coreia do Norte continua a ser o país mais fechado do mundo. Os seus cidadãos continuam a não poder sair do país livremente e todos os aspetos da sua vida são controlados pelo regime: onde vivem, em que trabalham e até, como foi notícia em fevereiro, que corte de cabelo usam. A mais pequena infração é punida com prisão.

Os 'gulags': 

Segundo testemunhos de fugitivos, nestes campos de detenção vivem em condições desumanas cerca de 200 mil presos políticos ou condenados por delitos como possuir um rádio sem autorização - e seus familares, uma vez que no país vigora o conceito de "responsabilidade repartida": prende-se o acusado e seus familiares e amigos.

A fome:

A maioria dos recursos nacionais é desviada pelas forças armadas, ao abrigo da política "o exército primeiro". Nos anos 90, a fome matou centenas de milhares de pessoas e a crise alimentar mantém-se em algumas zonas do país.